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Solopov Roman V.

Cand. Sci. (Tech.), Associate Professor, Head of Electrical Power Systems Department, Branch of the National Research University "MPEI" in Smolensk
Smolensk, Russia

An electric power system object model creating experience for researching the operation of digital means of relay protection and automation

The article is devoted to the operation logic modeling of relay protection and automation terminals in order to their verification, adjustment and further exploitation. The problem of adjusting protection terminals mutual interaction is unlikely to appear in real conditions due to wide variety of them. The authors propose a solution to this problem by creating a verified model based on a digital twin of an electric power network section created in the MatLab software package. This model helps to study the functioning of the researched protection settings in nominal, repair, emergency and post-emergency equipment operation modes. A model of the selected substation was created displaying all the properties that are significant for research of the original one. In addition, the requirements analysis for the main and backup protection operation settings of the three-winding transformers was carried out. The main unit is a differential transformer relay protection and the backup one is maximal current protection in amount of three units for every transformer winding circuit: higher, middle and lower transformer voltage branch. The model makes it possible to analyze the relay protection operation selectivity by checking the current settings which could be imported from XML documents unloaded from existing terminals and to evaluate the correctness of new calculated ones with the possibility of their manual input. As a result of the researched object modeling, a three-stage operation analysis of the differential and maximal current protections was carried out. It has shown relay protection selective operation both in the case of nominal and abnormal modes, including the event of the main transformer protection malfunction. This technique can be extended to the other electric power network. Read more...

Genetic algorithm as a tool for modeling calculations of electric power systems

Evolutionary modeling is one of the areas of artificial intelligence, which essence is the computational processes interpretation and the final forms of integral computational algorithms construction from their existence, variability and development the points of view in natural systems. All evolutionary modeling methods are of an optimization nature due to the basic use of the theory of natural selection principles. One of the most common methods of evolutionary modeling is the genetic algorithm (GA). It is the method of adaptive search for solutions based on the principles of the evolution and the natural selection with the preservation of biological terminology in a simplified form theories. Its essence is to determine the most fit individual (solution) by the value of its fitness function during evolution, considering the analysis of the heredity influences and the external environment. Despite the biological terminology, genetical algorithms are a universal computational tool that can be used to solve a wide range of complex problems, including the electric power industry. The authors considered the issue of the genetic algorithm use in the framework of calculating the steady state of the electrical network (SS EN), since the mathematical electrical network model is a system of high-order nonlinear equations, where all the restrictions imposed by the physical properties of the object under consideration are taken into account. Its solution is a rather laborious optimization problem, due to the operating electrical networks complexity. The correct solution of this system is the most critical stage in the calculation of the SS EN. It is the reason for importance and urgency of the search for SS EN calculating optimal methods task. This paper presents the development results of an analytical apparatus that made it possible to search for a solution to the problem of calculating electrical networks steady-state modes using the genetic algorithm based on special software. Read more...