|Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Associate Professor, Electric Power Systems Department, Branch of the National Research University “MPEI” in Smolensk
The article deals with the mathematical basis and simulation of the saturation processes of current transformers with aperiodic components of short-circuit currents. Saturation processes of current transformers can affect the correct operation of the protections. At power plants, in particular atomic ones, the number of current transformers is several hundred with different loads, lengths of supply cables and the implementation of relay protection. At the same time, the determination of the time to saturation is essential for the construction of circuits and principles of construction of relay protection systems and automation of power plants. The dynamic processes in the primary and secondary circuits of current transformers in dynamics are considered in detail. A mathematical description of the dynamic processes of a current transformer in the nominal mode and during a short circuit in its primary circuit is given. The substantiation of the expediency of using the hypothesis of a rectangular magnetization characteristic in simplified calculations of saturation processes is given. The possibility of using the characteristics of magnetization in the test protocols available in practice in the no-load mode to simulate saturation processes has been demonstrated. Simulation of current transformers for the no-load experiment and power supply of the current transformer from the secondary side, as well as during its operation under conditions of a short circuit on the primary side and a known load on the secondary side is carried out. Thus, with the help of a computer experiment, it is possible to take the current- voltage characteristics and transfer them to the model with the saturation of current transformers already in the short-circuit mode. The efficiency of dynamic simulation of current transformers is shown. The software implementation of the model is performed by means of structural simulation in the MatLab package, based on the solution of equations of matrix structures and emulation of parallel computations. It was found that with the adequacy of the model and the real current transformer with the involvement of information from the no-load mode, the determination of the magnetization time from the aperiodic current components from the model is much easier than the analysis by other existing methods. They require detailed design details of the current transformer and the magnetic properties of the steel. Read more...
Modeling the process of self-starting of electric motors for auxiliary needs of a nuclear power plant to accelerate it and minimize various disturbances
The article proposes a solution to the problem of accelerating the processes of self-starting of asynchronous electric motors of pumping equipment with the help of simulation computer modeling tools to reduce the negative impact on the power supply circuit of the auxiliary needs of a nuclear power plant. The features of the run-down transient processes and the interaction of machines of various capacities in the autonomous circuit that occurs after they are turned off, the subsequent transition to a backup power source, and the emerging effects during self-start are considered. It is shown that the most severe mode of such a transition occurs as a result of the operation of automatic switching on of the reserve and disconnection of working power sources by technological protections or actions of operational personnel at the operational level of operating voltage and nominal or close to it load sections. The analysis of emerging modes is carried out using models developed in the MatLab computer mathematics system with a built-in electrical application. The features of the processes of run-down and subsequent self-starting at various favorable and unfavorable moments of time and the magnitude of the mismatch between the voltages of the network and the resulting autonomous circuit are demonstrated. The models make it possible to obtain a reliable mathematical description of the electromagnetic and mechanical processes of motors in a complex electromechanical system of several motors, to measure the instantaneous voltage differences between the network and the run-down circuit, and to predict the optimal time to turn on the backup power source. The results of the studies carried out on the models are the development of recommendations on the technology for monitoring voltage and circuit mismatches for the same phases, the assessment of the root-mean-square deviation of these mismatches and the effective search for the moment of re-enabling the backup source to improve the technological modes of nuclear power plants. Read more...
Dynamic simulation modeling of the excitation system of synchronous generators of stationary diesel generator sets for emergency power supply of a nuclear power plant
In the article, using MatLab dynamic simulation modeling, a study was made of the excitation systems of powerful synchronous generators of stationary diesel generator sets, which are the main sources of emergency power supply for nuclear power plants. The optimal structural complexity mathematical model of a synchronous machine in relative units and orthogonal synchronous coordinate system is used. A comprehensive simulation of diesel generator sets was carried out with the reproduction of both the dynamics of the automatic control system for excitation of a synchronous generator and the diesel engine control system. The simulation takes into account the features of starting a diesel generator to accelerate a synchronous machine, its initial excitation from a battery. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of self-excitation modes through a transformer connected to the stator circuit of the generator and a thyristor rectifier with an excitation winding as a load, as well as parallel operation with the power system. As a result, the processes of starting a diesel generator set in idle mode, effective self-excitation, autonomous operation of the generator at idle, and applying a load to the generator up to the values of permissible overload were simulated. The work of all channels of the control system is shown, including the signals of the regulators of the automatic control system and mechanical variables that are inaccessible in practice. The adequacy of the developed model is proved by comparison with a real physical experiment when testing a diesel generator at a nuclear power plant. The possibility of using the model developed in MatLab as a virtual test site for testing a diesel generator set and a computer simulator for specialized engineering personnel of a nuclear power plant is demonstrated. Read more...
Structural modeling of existing and improved control algorithms for thyristor switching devices of uninterruptible power supply units for auxiliary needs of nuclear power plants
The article analyzes the operation of thyristor automatic switching devices for uninterruptible power supply units of nuclear power plants. They are part of the emergency power supply system for auxiliary electrical equipment with a rated voltage of 0.4 kV. In such a reliable power supply system for especially responsible consumers, alternative networks and backup sources are necessarily used. Typically, groups of consumers for auxiliary needs of nuclear power plants are powered from the inverter network, so that in the event of a shutdown of the backup bypass network, these loads continue to be powered by the uninterruptible power supply unit. It incorporates a charger – a controlled rectifier, a battery pack and a transistor inverter. The transition from one network to another in any direction must be “shockless” in order to avoid the operation of the protections of uninterruptible power units and other electrical protections of the reliable power supply system. If there are failures in the algorithms or their irrational organization, the processes of transition between networks may be accompanied by a violation of uninterrupted power supply or phase-to-phase short circuits. A structural simulation model has been created in the MatLab computer mathematics system for testing transition algorithms for various phase shifts of networks and transition directions. The algorithm of transition between networks for uninterruptible power units of one of the manufacturing companies that supplied equipment to nuclear power plants was analyzed. A safer optimal algorithm for controlling network switching with phase-by-phase control of the current drop in the disconnected network is proposed. The proposals are supported by the results of computer simulations. Read more...
Modeling of the operation features of remote protection of backup transformers for the own needs of power units of a nuclear power plant during self-start of powerful motor loads
In the article, using computer modeling, an analysis of the operation of distance protection of backup transformers is carried out, providing alternative power supply for the own needs of a nuclear power plant through a backup busbar when disconnected from the power system. During the transition from the main network to the backup network, there is a short period of power off to the sections. At the same time, the powerful motor loads of the sections that have received power begin to operate in the freewheel braking mode. Then the reserve is automatically switched on, which can occur at a more or less favorable moment. At an unfavorable moment, self-starting may be electrically more severe than a short circuit on the busbar. When combining a new network from a backup auxiliary transformer and an autonomous circuit of running machines, transient processes of electromagnetic interaction between machines switching to generator mode and the new network arise. There are some optimal favorable moments for merging networks when it is advisable to carry out self-starting. Due to the complexity of the mathematical description with a high order system of equations and a large number of interaction objects, it is advisable to study these processes using computer modeling. A practical question, which is answered by the calculations and computer modeling, concerns the value of the distance protection setting for the backup transformer for auxiliary needs. Using the developed structural simulation model in MatLab, a series of experiments was carried out on the run-down and self-starting of auxiliary sections with their given composition and load. The range of self-start time corresponded to the operation of automatic switching on of the reserve sections by distance protection. Calculations and modeling show that the adopted setting can be adjusted, ensuring protection of a larger length of the busbar with possible options for connecting auxiliary sections to it. The model is supplemented with an add-on in the form of an external program for detailed processing and visualization of data obtained from oscilloscopes of the MatLab structural model. Read more...