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Journal archive

№5(95) October 2021 year


IT business

Performance management

The development of the digital economy in the modern world requires solving the issue of security of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications. A large number of distributed, network-based, IIoT devices managed by intelligent programs (software agents) require protection. A successful attack on any IIoT device will lead to hacking of the IIoT application and to large financial losses, as well as to the termination of the IIoT application, therefore, the research topic is relevant. The purpose of this article is to radically solve the security problem of the IIoT application by developing a blockchain architecture of the application. The authors were tasked with investigating all aspects of the blockchain system that ensure the security of IIoT application devices. The peculiarity of the blockchain system is that its participants are software agents that control the application devices. As a result of the research, the concept of the blockchain architecture of the IIoT application is proposed. He mechanisms of consensus of intelligent programs of IIoT devices as equal active participants of the blockchain network are investigated. The consensus mechanism and the cryptographic system of the distributed registry of the blockchain network increase the information security of the IIoT application. The synergistic effect of the blockchain system and intelligent systems of software agents of IIoT application devices significantly increases the efficiency of the solution. Intelligent systems of software agents and IIoT applications are effectively trained on the blockchain platform, and as a result, we get a decentralized supercomputer in the form of a blockchain system.

The modern system of industrial risk management at enterprises is based on the basic principles laid down in the standards of industrial safety and labor protection, and presupposes, basically, long-term precedent risk management - responding to their occurrence, analyzing the results, and taking measures to reduce risks. At the same time, with rare exceptions, the management of extremely rapidly developing risk situations, carried out in the course of their development, remains outside the brackets. For example, the failure of some machine tools, or their parts, can be predicted in advance by the parameters of their operation (the nature and level of noise, vibration, temperature parameters, etc.). Previously, the management of such risk situations was complicated by the lack or high cost of automated systems capable of responding with the required delays. The features of risk management of extremely rapidly developing risk situations are considered. A comparative analysis of modern message brokers suitable for building intelligent risk management systems in conditions of uncertainty has been carried out. The architecture of software tools for intelligent risk management in conditions of uncertainty based on the Apache Kafka message broker is proposed. A comparative analysis of the implementation of fuzzy data processing based on Kafka Streams within Apache Kafka and a separate application outside Apache Kafka is carried out, an estimate of the load generated by such software is obtained.

Software engineering

Algorithmic efficiency

All enterprises engaged in exploration activities on the territory of the Russian Federation, are facing the need to formulate tasks for the mine surveyor service and control their execution. It affects enterprise’s workflow process. Due to it, a problem of organization of efficient document processing in electronic document management systems (timely identification of documents containing mine surveying data) takes place. The article presents possible solution of this problem – automated document classification system into EDMS in the form of optional add-on for 1C:Document Management. Within the classification system creation a preprocessing script for primary document texts, including cleaning, lemmatization, stop words removing, as well as preparation of input features for the classifier were developed and implemented. Applicability of different machine learning algorithms to solution of considering classification problem was studied, the values of hyperparameters providing the highest value of the ROC AUC metric were determined. The quality of all obtained models was assessed using metrics Precision, Recall and F-measures, the stability of the classification quality to changes in the input data was investigated. The identified problem of instability of classification results was solved by building and implementing a machine learning model in the form of ensemble of classifiers. Classification model (an ensemble of clusters) was tested on the set of real documents of Gazprom nedra Ltd; classiffication quality on the test sample by ROC AUC metric was 0,91. Except the classification module itself, developed system contains the storage database for learning outcomes, function library for organization of work with the database and API interfaces allowing to process classification requests, coming from external systems. These API interfaces, in particular, implement the ability to load saved trained models, validate data coming from external systems, preprocess input text documents, train new models and assess their quality, save both trained models and the results of their testing. Also the possibility of the additional training of the models on a new data was realized.

This article is a continuation of the article published in Journal of Applied Informatics nо.1 in 2019 [1]. In it, the problems of computer design of routes of various linear structures (new and reconstructed railways and highways, pipelines for various purposes, canals, etc.) are considered from a unified standpoint, as problems of approximating a sequence of points on plane of a smooth curve consisting of elements of a given type, i.e. spline. The fundamental difference from other approximation problems considered in the theory of splines and its applications is that the boundaries of the elements of the spline and even their number are unknown. Therefore, a two-stage scheme for finding a solution has been proposed. At the first stage, the number of spline elements and their parameters are determined using dynamic programming. For some tasks, this stage is the only one. In more complex cases, the result of the first stage is used as an initial approximation to optimize the spline parameters using nonlinear programming. Another complicating factor is the presence of numerous restrictions on the spline parameters, which take into account design standards and conditions for the construction and subsequent operation of the structure. The article discusses the features of mathematical models of the corresponding design problems. For a spline consisting of arcs of circles, mated by line segments, used in the design of the longitudinal profile of both new and reconstructed railways and highways and pipelines, a mathematical model is built and a new algorithm for solving a nonlinear programming problem is proposed, taking into account the structural features of the constraint system. In contrast to standard nonlinear programming algorithms, a basis is constructed in the zero-space of the matrix of active constraints and its modification is used when the set of active constraints changes. At the same time, to find the direction of descent at each iteration, no solution of auxiliary systems of equations is required at all. Two options for organizing the iterative optimization process are considered: descent through groups of variables in the presence of sections for independent construction of the descent direction and the traditional change of all variables in one iteration. Experimentally, no significant advantage of one of these options has been revealed.

Information security

Models and methods

The issues of ensuring the financial stability of financial institutions, which is understood as the sufficiency of assets to meet obligations, are of paramount importance both for clients and the management of a financial institution, and for the country's economy as a whole. Most often, the inability to fulfill obligations is associated with a lack of funds, therefore it is important to monitor the dynamics of the monetary capital of organizations, to assess their financial risks, including in the conditions of investment. Purpose of the study: development of tools for assessing the risks of financial organizations. Statement of the problem: to develop a simulation model that allows one to study the dynamics of the capital of an organization, whose financial resources are formed due to heterogeneous flows of inflow and outflow of funds and investment, including in risky assets, in an inflationary environment. The paper proposes a modeling algorithm that allows to collect a descriptive statistics on the distribution of financial resources, to estimate the dynamics of the money capital of financial organizations and investigate the "sufficiency" of the company's funds to meet financial obligations basing on data of cash flows for various types of contracts and returns (growth rates) of assets, presented in the form of statistical data and/or characteristics of time series models. The description of the software tool is given. A computational experiment was based on data of the inflow and outflow of funds of a non-state pension Fund under the program of non-state pension provision. Descriptive statistics are given for the distributions of the size of organization's funds constructed as a result of modeling. The probability of organization’s downfall in dynamics and the risk of entering the zone of financial insecurity are assessed. The proposed tools have scientific novelty in the field of designing simulation models and decision support systems for analyzing the activities of financial organizations and determining effective directions for their development.

Models and methods

The development of application software for cyber-physical systems of buildings involves the widespread use of Internet of Things (IoT) integration platforms. In practice, the flexible functionality of IoT platforms often leads to additional costs for software enhancement of existing and connection of new units, in particular digital twins. The paper proposes a technological solution for the implementation of a digital twin of the ventilation process in the IoT control loop of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for buildings and industrial facilities. The implementation and execution of the digital twin in the form of a dynamic simulation model in the object-oriented modelling language Modelica in the OpenModelica environment is considered. The IoT platform InfluxData, based on the TICK stack, is considered as an example of an integration environment. It is a horizontally-oriented IoT platform that contains the mechanism for collecting data from devices and the InfluxDB time-series database for storing metrics. To integrate simulation models on Modelica with InfluxDB, an OMPython server is proposed. In this case, the integration scripts are executed in the Python language, which as a result extends the traditional capabilities of the IoT platform significantly to the level of a digitally twinned control system. This HVAC control involves adapting control loops by taking into account the dynamics of the air distribution process over the ventilation network, evaluating and compensating for process inertia. The publication was prepared within the framework of the Academic Fund Program at the HSE University in 2020–2021 (grant № 21-04-039).

Software engineering

Preventing and neutralize dangerous situations tasks are relevant in the operation of complex technological objects. Complex technological objects present, in particular, in the support city systems (heat, water, energy, gas supply systems), at large industrial, mining, or processing enterprises. The development of dangerous situations at such facilities can lead to undesirable or even catastrophic consequences. The decision-making process to neutralize (prevent) an emerging dangerous situation is aimed at finding an action program that should transfer the current emergency situation into a target, standard situation. The article examines the possibility of implementing a case-based reasoning method for retrieving a solution using a neural network in order to prevent and neutralize dangerous situations at a complex technological object of city infrastructure. The authors consider the situation as a set of elements states of a complex object and the relationships between elements. To solve the tasks, the work examines two neural network architectures: a model that builds upon the multilayer perceptron and the "comparator - adder" architecture.Experiments have shown that the proposed neural network architecture "comparator - adder" showed higher accuracy than the multilayer perceptron for the considered tasks of comparing situations. The obtained result continues the well-known research in the integration of machine learning methods and methods of knowledge-based systems field. It serves as the basis for the further development of decision inference hybrid models for intelligent control of complex objects.

Development of a web-resource today is a very frequent and not always simple task. Especially if we are not talking about a static one-page website, but about a dynamic web application with an unlimited number of pages, as well as the ability to withstand heavy loads, typical of such projects. To solve these problems, there are very few ready-made solutions. Of the best ones, perhaps, only WebDSL can be distinguished, but even it has a number of drawbacks inherited from the Java project implementation language, such as, for example, low flexibility, high performance costs and the need to install a java-machine. The development process was carried out using a relatively low-level C++ general purpose programming language, which saved the project from the problems that its competitors faced, ensured high interpreter performance and cross-platform system-wide. The authors described in detail the selected means of the meta-management of the access rights of the BlockSet project, as well as the syntax of their use in the declarative highly abstract subject-oriented language BML, using simple and accessible examples to demonstrate the conciseness, but the constructiveness of the selected syntax solutions. The results obtained are of great value, as they significantly simplify the further process of administering a web resource, which is also one of the main tasks of the BlockSet project. Thus, the BML language, together with the system of access rights, provides flexible, powerful, and at the same time fairly simple and understandable methods for organizing the required system, which corresponds to the project’s paradigms on flexibility and a low threshold of entry, and also significantly optimizes the development process.


Researching of processes and systems

Author: O. Kultygin

The article is concerned with an approach to assess the economic efficiency of IT projects, which results are recommended to be used when choosing the informatization version for organizations of various types. This approach is based on the calculation of such indicators as capital costs for an IT project, the magnitude of the projected change in operating costs to ensure the functioning of the IS (information system), the growth rate in the efficiency of business processes as a result of informatization, as well as the costs to ensure the required level of information security. The analysis results of modern trends in the IS development for informatization of organization business processes are given, which made it possible to identify the main features of the solutions offered on the market. The analysis of direct and indirect costs for an IT project is shown to be rather difficult in a number of cases, which leads to inaccuracies in assessing its economic efficiency. In this case, the estimated payback period of the project (usually unreasonably short) can be exceeded many times in practice. At the same time, as a result of rapid progress in the field of information technology, the IT projects results are subjected to intense obsolescence, so long payback periods can lead to significant losses for the organization implementing the project. The consideration of the influence of the information security threats and the necessary additional funds for its provision on the forecast indicators for the economic efficiency of the proposed IT projects can significantly affect the decisions on choosing not only the configuration of the IS but the platform on which it operates as well. The article proposes an approach to determine the costs for ensuring information security, which should be considered when assessing the IT project economic efficiency. A mathematical model is described to choose an option for the tables rational placement on IS units (database servers) used by employees of various geographically detached divisions of an enterprise, which will allow reducing operating costs for this system operation.

The article discusses the main aspects of modeling suspended polymer high-voltage insulation of overhead power lines (PTL) in the COMSOL Multiphysics 5.6 software package. Analytical expressions of the mathematical model of the electromagnetic field around the insulator are given, on the basis of which a numerical solution is formed within the software package that allows you to build a model of the electric field in two-dimensional and three-dimensional space. There are three main stages of working with the program interface. At the first stage, the task of the geometric dimensions of the model and the surrounding area is considered, attention is paid to the formation of the design features of polymer insulators. In the second stage, the physical properties of the structural materials of the insulator, as well as the surrounding space, are described. The third stage is reduced to the determination of boundary conditions for solving the Poisson differential equation. Recommendations for finite element mesh density are given. A gradient picture of the distribution of the electric potential near the surface of the insulator is presented. The graphs of the distribution of the normal component of the electric field strength along the surface of the insulator are also plotted. On the basis of the obtained results, the influence of external factors on the properties of the polymer insulator is studied. A possible variant of modeling influencing factors, such as pollution and moisture, by making changes in the description of the physical properties of the insulator surface, namely by including a uniform and continuous layer with a given conductivity, is described. The distribution of the normal component of the electric field strength along the surface of the insulator with contamination is obtained. The results of modeling the electric field distribution with the presence of contamination on the surface of the insulator and its absence are summarized in the table where the electric field strength is indicated depending on the distance to the traverse. Based on the analysis of the results obtained, an assumption is made about the overestimated level of the maximum electric field on the insulators recommended by the manufacturers. The convergence of the considered models with the experimental data obtained in the course of long-term observation of the dynamics of the degradation and aging processes of the surface of polymer suspended insulators of overhead transmission lines is discussed.