The article deals with the issues of ontological engineering of complex systems. Ontological engineering includes the processes of designing and building ontologies, technologically combining object-oriented and structural analysis. Ontological engineering aims to ensure the adoption of high-quality management decisions by increasing the level of integration of the necessary information, improving search capabilities in databases and knowledge bases, providing the possibility of joint processing of knowledge based on a single semantic description of the knowledge space. This process is carried out within the framework of the proposed approach to managing complex systems. The ontology obtained as a result of engineering is subject to the requirements of convenience and flexibility, which is necessary for modeling system processes and ensuring the functioning of information and analytical processes in a complex system. The application of ordinary graphs, hypergraphs and metagraphs in ontological engineering is described. The use of metagraphs in the construction of hierarchical ontologies is substantiated. Metagraphs are considered as the basis for building an applied ontology of a complex system. A modification of the metagraph is proposed, which makes it possible to include events and data processing methods in the ontology. Such a modification integrates the process component into the ontological model of the system as an integral part of it, which makes it possible to flexibly and with less time to form process models based on the metagraph subgraphs of the general ontological model. An approach and an example of the implementation of the software-instrumental environment of ontological engineering and further construction of models of processes of a complex system are described. The technology used to implement the ontology in the PostgreSQL database management system and the database structure for storing the ontology are described.
complex systems, ontological engineering, ontology, graph, hypergraphs, metagraphs